Complications of kidney disease are secondary conditions, symptoms, or other disorders that are caused by kidney disease. People with advanced kidney disease can sometimes develop medical problems as a result of their illness or as a complication of their treatment.
Hematuria is blood in the urine. While in many instances the cause is harmless, it can also indicate a serious disorder.
Proteinuria indicates the presence of abnormal quantities of protein in the urine. This is often an indication of damage to the kidneys.
Phosphate and Calcium Disorders
Problems with calcium, phosphate and a chemical messenger in the blood called parathyroid hormone (PTH) can occur in anyone with kidney failure. Left unchecked, it can lead to irreversible damage to the bones, heart and blood vessels.
Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS)
Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is a condition that can occur when the small blood vessels in your kidneys become damaged and inflamed. This damage can cause clots to form in the vessels. The clots clog the filtering system in the kidneys and can lead to kidney failure.
Oxalosis is a rare metabolic disorder in which the kidneys are unable to eliminate calcium oxalate crystals through the urine. Oxalate is a by-product of normal metabolism. There are no enzymes in the human body that can break down oxalate; it must be excreted from the body through urine.
Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis
Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis is a rare syndrome that involves fibrosis of skin, joints, eyes, and internal organs. It can occur in patients with impaired kidney function.
Metabolic Acid/Base Disorder
Metabolic acidosis is a serious electrolyte disorder characterized by an imbalance in the body’s acid-base balance. Metabolic acidosis has three main root causes: increased acid production, loss of bicarbonate, and a reduced ability of the kidneys to excrete excess acids.
Secondary hyperparathyroidism occurs when the parathyroid glands become enlarged and release too much parathyroid hormone (or PTH). High levels of PTH can lead to bone disease. It can also cause calcium to build up in tissues and organs such as the heart and blood vessels.
Amyloidosis is a rare disease that occurs when an abnormal protein, called amyloid, builds up in your organs and interferes with their normal function. Amyloid isn’t normally found in the body, but it can be formed from several different types of protein. Organs that may be affected include the heart, kidneys, liver, spleen, nervous system and digestive tract.
Calciphylaxis is a serious, uncommon disease in which calcium accumulates in small blood vessels of the fat and skin tissues. Calciphylaxis causes blood clots, painful skin ulcers and may cause serious infections. People who have calciphylaxis usually have kidney failure and are on dialysis or have had a kidney transplant, however the condition can also occur in people without kidney disease.